This fifth report on orbital debris sponsored by the IAA is being issued at a time when so many aspects of the space environment are changing. There are an increasing number of countries operating in space; a more diverse suite of satellites and launchers and an influx of commercial investment into current and future space operations. Unfortunately, in addition to the enhanced benefits that these systems provide mankind, there is also more orbital debris threatening the new activities in space. This situation report has been written to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, coverage for the nontechnical reader of the many dimensions of orbital debris.

As a result of the complex measurements and modeling across a diverse range of topics timestamps are provided for vetted data that are inconsistent (i.e., not the same year) across the “Situation Report”. This fact highlights the multi-disciplinary, international dimensions of the community collaborating to identify, characterize, and manage risks posed by orbital debris. It is also critical to understand that this “Situation Report” format was specifically selected to avoid having to make recommendations for research or action. This report primarily provides a snapshot of the important dimensions of space debris upon which mission- and country-specific recommendations may be based.

Original document located here –



[13.1] Kessler D., Cour-Palais B. (1978). Collision frequency of artificial satellites: The creation of a debris belt. Journal of Geo-Physical research, Vol 83 N°A6

[13.2] Kessler D. (1991). Collision cascading: The limits of population growth in Low Earth Orbit. Advances in Space Research 11(12): 63-66

[13.3] Safe disposal of orbiting systems and spacecraft including the prevention of debris creation. ESA- Contract N°9024/90/NL/PM(SC), 1990

[13.4] NASA Safety Standard nss1740_14-1995. Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for limiting Orbital Debris. August 1995

[13.5] National Space Policy of the United States of America, June 28th 2010. [13.6] US Governmental Orbital Debris Mitigation Practices, May 2004

[13.7] JAXA: NASDA-STD-18. Space Debris Mitigation Standard. March 28th 1996 (now revised to JMR- 003C. September 9, 2014)

[13.8] ESA PSS 01.40 Issue 2. System Safety Requirements for ESA Systems. July 1988

[13.9] ECSS Q 40 B. Space Product Assurance. Safety. May 2002

[13.10] ESA/ADMIN/IPOL(2014)2. Space Debris Mitigation Policy for Agency Projects. March 28th 2014


[13.11] CNES Standard MPM-51-00-12. Référentiel normative CNES. Méthode et Procédure. Exigences de sécurité – Débris Spatiaux. March 1999.

[13.12] EDMS – European Space Debris 2003 – Safety and Mitigation Syandard. February 2003

[13.13] European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation, June 28th 2004

[13.14] GOST R. National standard of the Russian Federation. SPACE TECHNOLOGY ITEMS
General Requirements on Space Systems for the Mitigation of Human-Produced near-Earth Space Pollution 2007

[13.15] DLR-RF-PS-001 Issue 6.0, Space Debris Mitigation Requirements, March 2009 [13.16] IADC website –

[13.17] IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines – IADC-02-01 Rev. 1, September 2007

[13.18] Support to the IADC Mitigation Guidelines – IADC-04-06 Rev 5.5, May 2014

[13.19] IADC Protection Manual – IADC-04-03 Version 5.0, October 2012

[13.20] Stability of the Future LEO Environment – IADC-12-08 Rev. 1, January

[13.21] French Space Operations Act – loi no 2008-518 du 3 juin 2008 relative aux opérations spatiales

[13.22] ISO 24113. Space Systems – Space Debris Mitigation Requirements – Second Edition May 15th 2011

[13.23] IAC International Astronautical Congress. Organized by IAF International Astronautical Federation

[13.24] ESA Conference on Space Debris. Darmstadt, Germany, every 4 years.

[13.25] COSPAR Committee on Space Research. Scientific Assembly every 2 years.

[13.26] IAASS The International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety. Conference every 2 years.

[13.27] EUCASS European Conference on AeroSpace Sciences. Conference every 2 years.

[13.28] International Conjunction Assessment Workshop every 2 years. CNES-HQ, Paris, France

[13.29] European Workshop on Satellites End of Life, every 2 years. CNES-HQ, Paris, France.

[13.30] European Workshop on Space Debris Modelling and Remediation, every 2 years. CNES-HQ, Paris, France.

[13.31] IAA International Academy of Astronautics – Space Debris Committee

[13.32] JAXA space debris workshop, every 2 years. JAXA Chofu Aerospace Center, Tokyo, Japan. Proceedings of the 7th Space Debris Workshop (2016)

*******************These are in footnotes, not in reference list at the bottom.  If you want any more of these pulled out, I need to know how they should be organized.

33 A/RES/62/101, ibid.

34 A/RES/68/74, ibid.

35 See

36 See‐proliferation‐and‐disarmament/outer‐space‐activities/index_en.htm

37 See “Stability of the Future LEO Environment”, an IADC study presented to UNCOPUOS, February 2013, available at‐12E.pdf

38 See the 2013 IAA study on “Space Debris Environment Remediation”.